The saffron plant Crocus sativus (Iridaceae) has a long life of many years, with a white rhizome (cob) on which there are apical buds. Saffron flower consists of a 6-part vase with 3 sepals and 3 petals, the same color and aroma, 3 flags with yellow horns. The female has a white cream and the stigma consists of 3 red branches.
The leaves of saffron flowers are thin and long, dark green or grass green, which are about 20 to 50 cm long and usually the number is 5 to 11 leaves. The flowers and leaves of saffron plants are located in a membrane tube called spot, which is responsible for protecting them until they leave. The saffron plant is rooted and does not produce seeds.
Now that you are very familiar with the saffron plant, we decide to explain about the method of planting and growing saffron. So, join us in the rest of the article.
Methodof plantingand cultivating saffron
There are differentmethods of growing saffron, which include:
- Mass cultivation
- Pit culture or copy
- Strip culture
Stages of saffron planting
Cultivation of saffron pits
In hole cultivation, a hole 20 to 25 cm deep is made by a shovel. In the next step, one person puts 3 to 15saffron onions in each hole and the next person covers thesaffron onionwith a shovel so that the ground surface under saffron cultivation is level.
The distance that is considered when planting saffronbetween the holes should be 15 to 20 cm and the distance between each row should be 25 to 30 cm.
Saffron strip cultivation
This method of saffron cultivation is done in two ways:
• Cultivation of low density and normal strips between 3 to 4 tons per hectare
• Ideal cultivation with a density between 8 to 10 tons per hectare
• Strip cultivation with normal density between 3 to 4 tons per hectare
In the strip method, the ground should be dug as a groove or strip with a shovel or tractor to a depth of 25 to 30 cm, then several people start picking saffron onions in these grooves at a distance of 8 to 10 cm from each other.
Now, after the onions are completely arranged on the ground, the next groove is dug like a previous strip with a shovel or tractor, and the new groove soil is transferred to the previous strip where thesaffron onion is located. The distance from each groove to the side groove is considered to be about 30 to 40 cm.
Harvesting saffron in the strip method is on average from the third year of saffron cultivation onwards, which is about 12 to 15 kg per hectare.
The ideal cultivation of saffron
This method is quite similar to conventional strip cultivation with a density of 3 to 4 tons per hectare, the only difference between the two methods is the distance betweensaffron bulbs, which is about 4 to 5 cm and the distance from each groove to the side groove is 20 to 30 Cm. In this method, the density ofsaffron onionsis 8 to 10 tons per hectare. The amount of saffron harvest in the ideal method will be from the third year onwards and will be about 20 to 25 kg per hectare.
It is interesting to know that the land under saffron cultivation does not need to be replanted every year and saffron bulbs have a lifespan of between 4 and in some areas even up to 10 years.
Water, soil and air conditions for saffron production and cultivation
Proper soil andsoil preparation for saffron cultivation requiresspecial care and attention becausesaffron cultivationshould be done in temperate climates and suitable conditions.
Saffron plant grows well in tropical and temperate regions that are hot and dry in summer and almost not cold in winter, but there are exceptions and it may grow well in some cold regions such as Hamedan and is compatible so that Saffron is now producedand grown in these areas.
The best time to plant saffron is approximately from November to May, because in summer saffron bulbs do not grow and dry out or fall asleep, so the lands of hot and dry areas are suitable for growing saffron.
Also, the suitabletemperature for planting saffronis 35 to 40 degrees Celsius.
Suitable soil for saffron is plowed every autumn, but if plowing is not possible at this time, it can be done in spring or early summer.
Plowing of saffron soil while pruning is done in spring after the spring rains stop to remove weeds, then in August or September about 40 to 80 tons of animal manure with 200 kg of ammonium phosphate They add it to thesoil and prepare it for growing saffron.
The soil suitable for growing saffron is sandy-clay soil because it has less lime. The pH of the soil should be between 7 and 8 and also the land under saffron cultivation should be such that no saffron plants have been planted in the past few years.
How is saffron irrigated?
Irrigation of saffrontakes place immediately after planting, but if irrigation is done before planting, it can be postponed to a few days after planting.
The first watering of saffron should be in autumn and about 2 weeks before the stem grows. If watering is repeated earlier than the beginning of autumn and repeated many times, it is possible for saffron leaves and flowers to grow earlier, which will be difficult to harvest in this operation.
Some irrigation of saffron plant from planting to harvest is once because this product is suitable for dry and dehydrated areas.
The process of breaking the saffron should be done after irrigating the saffron with a grooved shovel or a sloping shovel so that the saffron onion is not damaged.
Breeding is donein order to mix animal manure with soil and get saffron flowers out of the ground and pick weeds.
Usually the production of saffron plant is not significant in the first years, but as soon as purple flowers grow in the cultivated land, the saffron harvest will start and will continue for up to 3 weeks.
Saffron is a popular plant in the world and in Iran, the main production center of which is Iran. In addition to producing saffron for sale in the Iranian market, farmers also export saffron every year, which will also generate currency for the country.
Golden Mart Trading with years of experience in the field of buying, selling, exporting and importing, is one of the best producers in the saffron cultivation industry, which you can refer to the official website of this collection to buy saffron.
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