Hydrogen chloride is a colorless gas with a pungent odor and acidic grease and is heavier than air. It easily converts to a liquid to form a colorless liquid. It combines with metals and metal oxides and their hydroxides. Hydrogen chloride gas, if dissolved in water, is called hydrochloric acid. Hydrochloric acid is a strong mineral acid and is a colorless or pale yellow liquid that is highly corrosive and non-flammable. Hydrochloric acid is found naturally in stomach acid. The pH of this acid is between 0 and 2. Hydrochloric acid has long been known as salicylic acid, moriatic acid, and salt spirits, and is derived from vitriol (sulfuric acid) and common salt. Free hydrochloric acid was first officially introduced in the 16th century by Andreas Libavius. Later, it was used by chemists such as Johann Rudolf Glaber, Joseph Priestley, and Humphrey Davy in their scientific research.
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